embryos na linzamin kwamfuta na roba da aka girma daga sel mai tushe suna bugun zuciya da kwakwalwa

Embriões sintéticos de camundongos cultivados a partir de células-tronco têm cérebro e corações pulsantes

Masana kimiyya daga Jami'ar Cambridge da Caltech sun yi nasarar ƙirƙirar embryos na linzamin kwamfuta na roba - daga kwayoyin halitta na ciki - don samar da kwakwalwa, bugun zuciya da harsashin kowace gabo da ke cikin jiki, sabuwar hanyar sake haifar da matakan farko na rayuwa.

Maimakon yin amfani da ƙwai ko maniyyi, masanan sun yi amfani da sel mai tushe, manyan sel na jiki, waɗanda zasu iya haɓaka zuwa kusan kowace irin tantanin halitta a cikin jiki. Sun yi haka ne ta hanyar kwaikwayon tsarin halitta a cikin dakin gwaje-gwaje, suna jagorantar nau'ikan kwayoyin halitta guda uku da ke cikin farkon ci gaban dabbobi zuwa matakin da suka fara hulɗa. Sun kunna takamaiman saitin maganganun kwayoyin halitta don ƙirƙirar yanayi na musamman don hulɗar su (kwayoyin tushe).

Kwayoyin mai tushe sun tsara kansu zuwa tsarin da suka ci gaba ta matakai daban-daban na ci gaba har sai embryos na roba sun sami bugun zuciya da tushe ga kwakwalwa, da kuma jakar gwaiduwa inda amfrayo ke tasowa kuma yana karbar kayan abinci a cikin 'yan makonnin farko.

Wannan shi ne mataki mafi ci gaba na ci gaban kwayar tantanin halitta da aka samo asali zuwa yau.

Masana kimiyya sun lura, “Misalin amfrayonmu yana nuna folds na kai tare da ma’anar kwakwalwar gaba da tsakiyar kwakwalwa kuma yana haɓaka tsari mai kama da bugun zuciya, akwati wanda ya ƙunshi bututun jijiya da tsarin somites, toho mai ɗauke da zuriyar neuromesodermal, bututun hanji da ƙwayoyin cuta. primordial germs. Wannan nau'in kwaikwayon tayi yana tasowa ne a cikin jakar gwaiwar ciki da ke fara ci gaban tsibiri na jini."

"Babban ci gaba a cikin wannan binciken shine ikon samar da kwakwalwa gaba daya, musamman yankin gaba daya, wanda ya kasance 'mai tsarki' a cikin ci gaban embryos na roba."

Magdalena Zernicka-Goetz, Farfesa Bren na Biology and Biological Engineering a Caltech, ya ce, "Wannan yana buɗe sabbin damar yin nazarin hanyoyin haɓaka neurodevelopment a cikin ƙirar gwaji. Mun nuna tabbacin wannan ka'ida a cikin labarin ta hanyar fitar da kwayar halittar da aka riga aka sani tana da mahimmanci don samuwar bututun jijiyoyi, wanda ke gaba da tsarin juyayi, da kuma ci gaban kwakwalwa da idanu. Idan babu wannan kwayar halitta, embryos na roba suna nuna ainihin lahani na ci gaban kwakwalwa kamar dabbar da ke dauke da wannan maye gurbi. Wannan yana nufin cewa za mu iya fara amfani da wannan tsarin zuwa ga yawancin kwayoyin halitta waɗanda ba a san aikin da ba a san su ba a cikin ci gaban kwakwalwa. "

Natural and synthetic embryos
embryos na halitta (hagu) da na roba (dama) embryos gefe da gefe don nuna kwatankwacin samuwar kwakwalwa da samuwar zuciya. Hoton hoto: Amadei da Handford

“Misalin amfrayo na linzamin kwamfuta ba kawai yana haɓaka kwakwalwa ba, har ma da bugun zuciya, duk abubuwan da ke cikin jiki. Yana da rashin imani cewa mun zo wannan nisa. Wannan shi ne burin al'ummarmu tsawon shekaru kuma babban abin da muka fi mayar da hankali a kai tsawon shekaru goma, kuma a karshe, mun yi shi."

Mai tushe guda uku na nau'ikan tantanin halitta daban-daban suna farawa a cikin makon farko na hadi; daya daga cikinsu zai zama kyallen jikin, yayin da sauran biyun za su taimaka wa tayin girma. Matsayin mahaifa, wanda ke haɗa tayin da uwa kuma yana samar da iskar oxygen da abinci mai gina jiki, za a samo shi daga ɗayan nau'ikan guda biyu: ƙwayoyin sel na extraembryonic. Dayan kuma zai girma a cikin jakar gwaiduwa, inda amfrayo ke girma kuma ya sami abincinsa na farko.

Yawancin masu juna biyu suna kasawa a lokacin da nau'ikan sel guda uku suka fara aika siginar inji da sinadarai zuwa juna waɗanda ke gaya wa tayin yadda ake haɓakawa da kyau.

Don fahimtar dalilin da yasa wasu masu juna biyu ba su yi nasara ba yayin da wasu ke samun nasara, ƙungiyar Zernicka Goetz ta yi bincike a kan waɗannan matakan farko na ciki tun shekaru goma da suka wuce.

Zernicka-Goetz ya ce, “Tsarin ƙwanƙwaran ƙwayar mahaifa yana da mahimmanci saboda yana ba mu damar zuwa tsarin haɓakawa a wani mataki da aka saba ɓoye daga gare mu saboda dasa ƙaramin tayi a cikin mahaifar uwa. Wannan damar ta ba mu damar sarrafa kwayoyin halitta don fahimtar ayyukan ci gaban su a cikin tsarin gwaji na samfuri."

Masana kimiyya suna tattara ƙwararrun ƙwararrun ƙwayoyin halitta waɗanda ke wakiltar kowane nau'in nama guda uku don jagorantar samuwar amfrayonsu na roba. Daga nan sai suka kyale wadannan kwayoyin halitta su yi girma da kuma sadarwa da juna daidai gwargwado, daga karshe ya kai ga haduwar kansu zuwa cikin amfrayo.

Kwayoyin Extraembryonic suna jagorantar girman amfrayo ta hanyar aika siginar sinadarai zuwa amfrayo. Kwayoyin ko ta hanyar tabawa.

Zernicka-Goetz ya ce, "Wannan lokaci na rayuwar ɗan adam yana da ban mamaki, don haka don samun damar ganin yadda abin yake faruwa a cikin faranti - samun damar shiga waɗannan kwayoyin halitta guda ɗaya, don fahimtar dalilin da yasa yawancin ciki ke kasawa da kuma yadda za mu iya hana hakan faruwa - yana da kyau sosai. na musamman. Muna kallon tattaunawar da dole ne ta gudana tsakanin nau'ikan sel daban-daban a wannan lokacin - muna nuna yadda hakan ke faruwa da kuma yadda zai iya yin kuskure."

Yayin da ake gudanar da wannan bincike a cikin nau'ikan linzamin kwamfuta, masana kimiyyar sun yi shirin samar da samfurin kwatankwacin ci gaban ƴaƴan ƴaƴa don fahimtar hanyoyin da ke tattare da muhimman matakai waɗanda ba za su yuwu a yi nazari a cikin embryo na ainihi ba.

Zernicka -Goetz ya ce, "Idan waɗannan hanyoyin sun tabbatar da nasara tare da sel masu tushe na ɗan adam a nan gaba, za a iya amfani da su don jagorantar haɓakar gabobin roba ga marasa lafiya da ke jiran dasawa. Akwai mutane da yawa a duniya waɗanda ke jiran shekaru don dashen gabobi."

“Abin da ya sa aikinmu ya kayatar da shi shi ne, ilimin da ke fitowa daga ciki za a iya amfani da shi wajen bunkasa gabobin jikin mutum na roba don ceton rayukan da ake asara a halin yanzu. Ya kamata kuma a iya yin tasiri da warkar da gabobin manya ta amfani da iliminmu na yadda ake yin su.”

Maganar jarida:

  • Amadei, G., Handford, CE, Qiu, C. et al. embryos na roba sun cika gastrulation don neurulation da organogenesis. Halitta (2022). DOI: 10.1038/s41586-022-05246-3
  • Rate wannan post

    Labarai masu alaka

    Leave a Comment

    kuskure: