Kwayoyin giwaye na iya zama mabuɗin don hana ciwon daji, nazari

Kwayoyin giwaye na iya zama mabuɗin don hana ciwon daji, nazari

Ciwon daji yana haifar da tarin maye gurbi wanda ke ƙara haɗari tare da shekaru. Koyaya, ba kamar mutane ba, giwaye suna da alama suna tsayayya da wannan hali. Duk da girman jikinsu da kuma tsawon rayuwa mai kama da na ɗan adam, an kiyasta mutuwar ciwon daji a cikin giwaye bai wuce kashi 5% ba (maimakon kusan kashi 25 cikin ɗari a cikin mutane).

Giwaye suna da kwafin 20 na kwayoyin p53, wanda aka sani da "masu kula da kwayoyin halitta". A cewar hukumar masana kimiyya, yawan juriyar giwaye ga ciwon daji yana da alaƙa da waɗannan kwayoyin halitta.

A wani sabon nazari, masana kimiyya daga cibiyoyin bincike guda bakwai, ciki har da Jami'ar Oxford da Jami'ar Edinburgh, sun yi amfani da samfurin bioinformatics na farko don gano hulɗar kwayoyin halitta na furotin p53 da aka sani don ba da kariya daga ciwon daji.

P53 yana sarrafa hanyoyin gyaran DNA. Hakanan yana dakatar da haɓakar sel mara ƙarfi. Kunna wannan furotin yana faruwa lokacin da DNA ta lalace. Bayan kunnawa, yana taimakawa tsara amsa wanda ke dakatar da kwafin DNA da gyara duk wani kwafin tantanin halitta da ba a gyara ba. A cikin sel da aka kwafi tare da DNA mara lahani, aikin gyaran p53 bai zama dole ba kuma an kunna shi ta wani furotin, MDM2 E3 ubiquitin ligase oncogene.

Kwayoyin lafiya waɗanda ke haɓakawa da maimaitawa, gyaran ƙwayoyin da suka lalace, da kawar da sel tare da gazawar gyare-gyare ko ɓarna mai yawa sun dogara da ƙayyadaddun hulɗar, ko “musafaha” tsakanin p53 da MDM2.

Giwaye sun bayyana suna da allele 40, ko sigogi, na kwayoyin halittar p53 su ashirin, amma kowannensu ya ɗan bambanta. Wannan yana ba giwaye nau'ikan hulɗar kwayoyin cutar kansa fiye da mutane tare da alloli guda biyu na kwayar halitta guda ɗaya.

Godiya ga nazarin halittun halittu da kwaikwaiyon kwamfuta, da masana kimiyya sun sami damar bambance hulɗar musafaha tsakanin p53 isoforms daban-daban da MDM2. Sun gano cewa ƙananan bambance-bambance a cikin jerin kwayoyin suna haifar da nau'i-nau'i daban-daban na kowane nau'i na p53. Ƙananan bambance-bambancen tsarin suna canza fasalin tsari mai girma uku na isoform da musafaha tsakanin p53 da MDM2.

Ƙungiyar binciken ta gano cewa, saboda canje-canje a cikin jerin lambobin da kuma tsarin kwayoyin halitta, p53 da yawa sun tsere daga hulɗar da MDM2 wanda zai haifar da rashin aiki.

Mawallafin Farfesa Robin Fåhraeus, INSERM, Paris, ya ce: "Wannan ci gaba ne mai ban sha'awa don fahimtar yadda p53 ke ba da gudummawa don hana ci gaban ciwon daji. A cikin mutane, furotin p53 guda ɗaya ne ke da alhakin yanke shawarar ko sel ya kamata su daina yaduwa ko shiga cikin apoptosis, amma yadda p53 ke yanke shawarar ya kasance da wahala a bayyana. Kasancewar daban-daban isoforms na p53 a cikin giwaye tare da iyakoki daban-daban don yin hulɗa tare da MDM2 yana ba da sabuwar hanya mai ban sha'awa don ba da sabon haske game da ayyukan hana ƙari na p53. ”

Mawallafin da ya dace, Dr. Konstantinos Karakostis, Jami'ar Barcelona mai zaman kanta, ya lura: "A zahiri, tarin wuraren wuraren waha da aka gyara na p53, tare ko haɗin gwiwa tare da daidaita martani ga matsalolin daban-daban a cikin tantanin halitta, ya kafa wani madadin tsarin injina na tsarin salon salula na babban mahimmanci ga aikace-aikacen ilimin halitta."

Maganar jarida:

    Monikaben Padariya, Mia-Lyn Jooste et al. Giwa ta samo asali na p53 isoforms waɗanda ke tserewa MDM2 da danniya mai tsaka-tsakin ciwon daji. Halittar Halitta da Juyin Halitta, Juzu'i na 39, Fitowa ta 7, Yuli 2022, msac149. DOI: 10.1093/molbev/msac149

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