An gano ƙwayoyin ƙwayoyin cuta na herpes na zamanin da kuma an bi su a karo na farko

An gano ƙwayoyin ƙwayoyin cuta na herpes na zamanin da kuma an bi su a karo na farko

Human Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), kamuwa da cuta na tsawon rai da ake yadawa ta hanyar magana ta baki, yana cutar da yawancin manya a duniya. Yawancin lokaci yana haifar da raunuka a lebe. Bayan kamuwa da cuta na farko, ƙwayar cuta ta zama latent a cikin ƙwayoyin jijiya. Kwayar cutar na iya sake kunnawa lokacin da damuwa ta hankali ko ta jiki ta taso, wanda ke haifar da raunukan lebe masu maimaitawa.

Wani sabon bincike da wata tawagar masana kimiyya ta kasa da kasa karkashin jagorancin Jami'ar Cambridge ta yi, ya nuna cewa kwayar cutar HSV-1 kamar yadda muka sani a yau ta bulla ne kimanin shekaru dubu biyar da suka gabata, a sakamakon balaguron balaguron balaguron balaguro zuwa Turai daga ciyayi na Eurasian. steppes da haɓakar yawan jama'a waɗanda ke haɓaka ƙimar watsawa.

Masana kimiyya sun gano kuma sun tsara tsohuwar kwayar cutar ta herpes a karon farko. Herpes ya kasance a cikin miliyoyin shekaru kuma yana shafar halittu iri-iri, daga murjani zuwa jemagu. Duk da cewa HSV-1 ya zama ruwan dare a cikin mutane a yanzu, masana kimiyya sun gano cewa HSV-1 a baya yana da wuyar ganewa ba zato ba tsammani.

Masana kimiyya sun lura, "Fuwar ciwon fuska da aka gano a tsohuwar DNA na iya kasancewa tare da zuwan sabon al'adar al'ada da aka shigo da ita daga Gabas: sumba na soyayya da jima'i."

Co - babban marubuci Dr. Charlotte Holdcroft, daga Sashen Nazarin Halitta na Cambridge, ta ce: "Duniya ta kalli yadda COVID-19 ke canzawa cikin sauri cikin makonni da watanni. Kwayar cuta kamar herpes tana tasowa akan sikelin lokaci mai tsawo. "

"Harshen fuska yana ɓoye a cikin mai masaukinsa har tsawon rayuwa kuma yana watsa ta hanyar tuntuɓar baki kawai, don haka maye gurbi yana faruwa a hankali cikin ƙarni da shekaru dubu. Muna buƙatar bincike mai zurfi don fahimtar yadda ƙwayoyin cuta na DNA irin wannan ke tasowa. A baya can, bayanan kwayoyin cutar ta herpes kawai sun koma 1925.

Ɗaya daga cikin tsoffin samfuran DNA na herpes da aka yi amfani da su a cikin binciken ya fito ne daga wani mutum mai shekaru 26 zuwa 35 da aka tono kusa da bankunan Rhine. Mutumin ya kasance mai yawan shan taba bututun yumbu. Ana iya ganin alamun al'ada a wurare da yawa akan hakora, inda bututun yumbu mai wuyar gaske, yawanci ana sanya shi a wuri guda a cikin baki, yana lalata hakora. CREDIT: Dr. Barbara Washeka

Ta hanyar cire kwayar cutar DNA daga tushen hakora, masana kimiyya sun sami damar gano cutar kanjamau a cikin ragowar mutane hudu da suka shafe fiye da shekaru dubu. Tun da cutar ta herpes yawanci tana bayyana da ciwon baki, aƙalla tsofaffin gawawwaki biyu suma suna da cutar danko, na uku kuma suna shan sigari. Mafi dadewa samfurin ya fito ne daga wani baligi namiji da aka tono a yankin tsaunukan Ural na Rasha, tun daga lokacin da aka yi amfani da shi a zamanin Karfe, kimanin shekaru 1.500 da suka wuce. , "Mun kalli tsoffin samfuran DNA daga abubuwan binciken archaeological kusan 3.000 kuma kawai mun sami abubuwan da suka faru na herpes."

Babban marubucin marubuci Dr. Lucy van Dorp na Cibiyar Harkokin Halitta ta UCL ta ce, "Ta hanyar kwatanta tsohuwar DNA tare da samfuran herpes na ƙarni na 20, mun sami damar yin nazarin bambance-bambancen da ƙididdige adadin maye gurbi kuma, saboda haka, tsarin lokaci na juyin halittar kwayar cutar."

Babban marubuci, Dr. Christiana Scheib, mai bincike a St. John's College, Jami'ar Cambridge, kuma shugaban tsohuwar dakin gwaje-gwaje na DNA a Jami'ar Tartu, ya ce: "Kowane nau'in nau'in halitta yana da nau'i na herpes, don haka muna ɗauka cewa yana tare da mu tun lokacin da jinsinmu ya bar Afirka."

"Duk da haka, wani abu ya faru kimanin shekaru dubu biyar da suka gabata wanda ya ba da damar nau'in ciwon daji guda ɗaya ya zarce duk sauran, mai yiwuwa ya kara yadawa, wanda za a iya danganta shi da sumbata."

Masana kimiyya sun lura, "Babban rikodin sumba mafi dadewa shine rubutun Bronze Age daga Kudancin Asiya, kuma yana nuna cewa al'adar - nesa ba kusa ba a cikin al'adun mutane - na iya tafiya yamma tare da ƙaura zuwa Turai daga Eurasia."

Hakika, ƙarnuka da yawa bayan haka, Sarkin Roma Tiberius ya ba da wata doka mai alaƙa da cutar ta herpes wadda ta yi ƙoƙarin hana sumba a taron hukuma don dakatar da yaduwar cutar. Watsawar HSV-1 zai kasance "a tsaye" don yawancin tarihin ɗan adam, yana yaduwa daga uwa mai kamuwa da jariri zuwa jariri.

A cewar Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya, kashi biyu bisa uku na al'ummar duniya 'yan kasa da shekaru 50 yanzu suna dauke da HSV-1. Ga yawancin mu, ciwon lokaci-lokaci a kan leɓunanmu abin kunya ne kuma ba shi da daɗi, amma tare da wasu cututtuka - sepsis ko ma COVID-19, alal misali - ƙwayar cuta na iya zama m. A cikin 2018, mata biyu sun mutu sakamakon kamuwa da cutar HSV-1 a Burtaniya bayan haihuwar cesarean.

Holdcroft ya ce, "Samfurin kwayoyin halitta kawai ɗaruruwa ko ma dubban shekaru da suka wuce za su ba mu damar fahimtar yadda ƙwayoyin cuta na DNA irin su herpes da ƙwanƙwasa, da kuma tsarin garkuwar jikin mu, ke daidaitawa don mayar da martani ga juna."

Sheib ya ce, “Tawagar za su so su bibiyi wannan cutar ta farko mai jurewa da zurfi cikin lokaci don bincikar kamuwa da cutar ta farko. Neanderthal herpes shine dutsena na gaba da zan hau."

Maganar Diary:

Meriam Guelil et al. Herpes simplex 1 na zamanin d genomes sun bayyana tsarin ƙwayoyin cuta na kwanan nan a cikin Eurasia. Ci gaban Kimiyya, Yuli 27, 2022. Vol 8, Fitowa ta 30. DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abo4435

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