Me ya sa kwakwalwar mutum ta bambanta?

O que torna o cérebro humano diferente?

Me ya sa kwakwalwar mutum ta bambanta da sauran dabbobi? Wani sabon bincike daga Jami'ar Yale ya tashi don amsa wannan tambayar.

A cikin sabon bincike, masana kimiyya sun gano takamaiman halaye na kowane nau'in, musamman mutane. Sun gano cewa abin da ya sa mu ɗan adam kuma zai iya sa mu iya kamuwa da cututtukan neuropsychiatric.

Da farko masanan sun kalli dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). Sun yi amfani da dabarar jeri na RNA guda tantai don yin bayanin matakan bayanin kwayoyin halitta a cikin sel da yawa da aka tattara daga dlPFC daga babban mutum, chimpanzee, biri, da biri marmoset.

Sun ga dlPFC a matsayin babban ɓangaren ainihin ɗan adam.

Nenad Sestan, da Harvey da Kate Cushing Farfesa na Neuroscience a Yale, farfesa a kwatancen magani, kwayoyin halitta da kuma tabin hankali, ya ce, "Ba mu san abin da ke sa wannan ya zama na musamman a cikin mutane ba da kuma abin da ya bambanta mu da sauran nau'ikan halittu. Yanzu muna da ƙarin alamu. mafi fahimtar waɗannan bambance-bambance. Bayan tattara sel masu irin wannan bayanan bayanan, sun sami nau'ikan tantanin halitta guda 109 da aka raba, amma kuma sun sami biyar waɗanda ba kowane nau'in ba ne. Waɗannan sun haɗa da nau'ikan microglia daban-daban guda biyu, ko takamaiman ƙwayoyin rigakafi na ƙwaƙwalwa, waɗanda aka samu kawai a cikin mutane da chimpanzees, bi da bi. Wannan yana nufin cewa sel suna taka rawa wajen kiyaye kwakwalwa maimakon yaki da cututtuka.

sestan ya ce, "Mu mutane muna rayuwa ne a cikin yanayi daban-daban tare da salon rayuwa na musamman idan aka kwatanta da sauran nau'ikan halittu masu rai da glial sel, gami da microglia, muna da saurin kamuwa da waɗannan bambance-bambance. Nau'in microglia da aka samu a cikin kwakwalwar ɗan adam na iya wakiltar martanin rigakafi ga muhalli."

Wani abin da ba zato ba tsammani ya keɓanta ga ɗan adam shi ne kwayar halittar FOXP2, wacce aka gano ta hanyar nazarin maganganun kwayoyin halitta a cikin microglia. Wannan binciken ya haifar da sha'awa mai yawa saboda bambancin FOXP2 an danganta su da dyspraxia na magana, rashin lafiya wanda marasa lafiya ke gwagwarmaya don samar da harshe ko magana. A cewar wasu bincike, an danganta FOXP2 zuwa wasu cututtukan neuropsychiatric da suka hada da Autism, schizophrenia da farfadiya.

Wannan kwayar halitta tana nuna takamaiman magana ta musamman a cikin wani yanki na neurons masu ban sha'awa da takamaiman magana a cikin microglia.

Shaojie Ma, abokiyar karatun digiri a cikin dakin gwaje-gwaje na Sestan kuma marubucin jagora, ya ce: "FOXP2 ta daure masana kimiyya da yawa shekaru da yawa, amma har yanzu ba mu san abin da ya sa ya zama na musamman a cikin mutane da sauran nau'ikan halittu ba. Muna matukar farin ciki game da binciken FOXP2 saboda suna buɗe sabbin hanyoyi a cikin nazarin harshe da cuta. ”

Maganar Jarida: Shaojie Ma, Nenad Sestan, et al. Juyin halittar kwayoyin halitta da salon salula na dorsolateral prefrontal cortex na primates. Kimiyya 2022. DOI: 10.1126/kimiyya.abo7257

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