Wani sabon bincike na Antarctica ya nuna cewa matakan sinadarai masu guba sun karu sosai

Wani sabon bincike na Antarctica ya nuna cewa matakan sinadarai masu guba sun karu sosai

Perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAAs) sunadarai ne na roba tare da masana'antu daban-daban da aikace-aikacen mabukaci waɗanda yanzu ke yaɗuwa a duniya. Har ila yau, an san shi da suna masu guba 'sinadarai na fluoride na dindindin', waɗannan sinadarai ba sa lalacewa ta halitta a cikin muhalli.

Wani sabon bincike ya ba da shaida cewa matakan ''sunadarai na dindindin'' sun karu sosai a mahalli mai nisa na Antarctica cikin 'yan shekarun nan. Bisa lafazin masana kimiyya, Canje-canje na CFC na iya kasancewa daga cikin yuwuwar tushen.

Os masana kimiyya, don wannan binciken, an tattara firn cores (compacted dusar ƙanƙara) daga tudu mai nisa, tsayi, da ƙanƙara Dronning Maud Land plateau a Gabashin Antarctica. Tarin dusar ƙanƙara daga ainihin abin da aka samo daga 1958 zuwa 2017. masana kimiyya lura da karuwar tarin PFCA a cikin dusar ƙanƙara a wannan lokacin. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFBA) shine mafi yawan sinadaran da aka gano ta zuwa yanzu. Ya kamata a lura cewa yawan waɗannan sinadarai a cikin dusar ƙanƙara ya karu sosai a cikin shekara ta 2000 har zuwa ainihin a cikin 2017.

Binciken ya jagoranci masana kimiyya daga Jami'ar Lancaster tare da masu bincike daga Binciken Antarctic na Biritaniya da Cibiyar Hereon na Kimiyyar Muhalli ta bakin teku, Jamus.

Farfesa Crispin Halsall na Jami'ar Lancaster, wanda ya jagoranci binciken, ya yi imanin cewa wannan karuwar za a iya bayyana shi ta hanyar sauyin da masana'antun sinadarai na duniya suka yi a cikin shekaru 20 da suka wuce daga samar da sinadarai masu tsayi, irin su PFOA, zuwa mahadi masu tsayi. a matsayin PFBA, saboda matsalolin kiwon lafiya da ke hade da bayyanar ɗan adam zuwa PFOA.

Dr. Jack Garnett, wanda ya gudanar da binciken sinadarai kan samfuran dusar ƙanƙara, ya ƙara da cewa: "Ƙarin girma a cikin PFBA da aka gani daga ainihin, musamman a cikin shekaru goma da suka gabata, yana nuna cewa akwai ƙarin tushen wannan sinadari na duniya fiye da samar da polymer. Mun san cewa wasu daga cikin sinadarai da ke maye gurbin tsofaffin abubuwan da ke lalata ozone irin su CFCs da HCFCs irin su hydrofluorethers ana samar da su da yawa a matsayin refrigerants amma suna iya bazuwa a sararin samaniya don samar da PFBA."

"Tabbas yarjejeniyar ta Montreal ta kawo fa'idodi da kariya ga ozone, yanayi da mu duka. Koyaya, har yanzu ba a san ƙarin tasirin muhalli da guba na wasu daga cikin waɗannan sinadarai masu maye gurbinsu ba. "

Tun daga tsakiyar 1980s, yawan PFOA yana karuwa ba tare da wata shaida ta raguwa a cikin 'yan shekarun nan don yin daidai da karewa daga masana'antun duniya na wannan sinadari ba. Wannan yana nuna cewa an kiyaye samar da PFOA ko kuma abubuwan da ke faruwa na wannan sinadari sun kasance suna da girma a cikin yanayin duniya.

Dr. Anna Jones, Daraktan Kimiyya na Binciken Antarctic na Burtaniya, ta ce: "Wadannan binciken babban tunatarwa ne cewa ayyukan masana'antarmu suna da sakamako na duniya. Antarctica, ya zuwa yanzu daga hanyoyin masana'antu, tana riƙe da wannan alama ta gaba ta ayyukan ɗan adam daga hayaƙin dubban mil mil. Dusar ƙanƙara ta Antarctica da ƙanƙara sune mahimman ma'ajin tarihin canjin tasirin mu a duniyarmu. wanda ke fitar da sinadarai “precursor” masu canzawa zuwa cikin yanayi. Waɗannan mafarin suna iyo a cikin yanayin duniya har sai sun ƙasƙanta a gaban hasken rana don samar da PFCA mafi tsayi.

Dusar ƙanƙarar da aka samu a cikin shekaru da yawa ta kwashe waɗannan sinadarai daga sararin samaniya, wanda ya haifar da tarihin gurɓataccen yanayi a duniya wanda yanzu ya makale a cikin dusar ƙanƙara.

Sakamakon binciken, wanda ya yi daidai da ƙididdige ƙididdiga na hayaki mai guba daga PFCA, ya kara da cewa waɗannan gurɓatattun abubuwa suna karuwa a cikin Arctic da Tibet Plateau. Suna kuma taimakawa wajen zana cikakken hoto da zurfafa fahimtar yadda ake jigilar gurɓatattun abubuwa irin waɗannan ta cikin yanayi.

Dr. Markus Frey, masanin kimiya a cibiyar binciken Antarctic ta Burtaniya kuma mawallafin rahoton, ya ce: "Wannan wani misali ne wanda, duk da tsananin nisa, gurɓacewar da ɗan adam ke haifarwa ya isa nahiyar Antarctic sannan kuma a jibge shi cikin dusar ƙanƙara da ƙanƙara, wanda ke ba mu damar kafa tarihin gurɓataccen iska a duniya da tasirin matakan da za a ɗauka."

Dr. Markus Frey, masanin kimiya a cibiyar binciken Antarctic ta Burtaniya kuma mawallafin rahoton, ya ce: "Wannan wani misali ne wanda, duk da tsananin nisa, gurɓacewar da ɗan adam ke haifarwa ya isa nahiyar Antarctic sannan kuma a jibge shi cikin dusar ƙanƙara da ƙanƙara, wanda ke ba mu damar kafa tarihin gurɓataccen iska a duniya da tasirin matakan da za a ɗauka."

Maganar Jarida:

    Jack Garnett, Crispin Halsall, et al. Girma tarin gurɓataccen perfluorocarboxylate da aka bayyana a cikin ainihin fin Antarctic (1958-2017). Muhalli. Sci. Fasaha 2022. DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.2c02592

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